Congress was unable to pass a budget deal by its midnight deadline, and it recessed until shortly after that deadline would pass, which ensures that the shutdown is inevitable. Only 73 Democrats voted for the bill; 67 Republicans voted against it.
The shutdown, which started at midnight, was the second this year under the Republican-controlled Congress and Trump, who played little role in attempts by party leaders earlier this week to head it off and end months of fiscal squabbling. Rand Paul demanded a vote on an amendment to the spending bill that would keep caps on federal spending, which is expected to rise by a total of $300 billion over two years.
In Washington's latest display of governance by brinkmanship, the bipartisan accord bolstering military and domestic programs and deepening federal deficits crossed the finish line just before dawn - but not before the government shut down overnight.
He argued the decision adds $400 billion to defense spending as well as non-defense expenses, which puts America at risk of adding another $1 trillion to the national debt. Rand Paul repeatedly held up votes on the budget plan, which is married to a six-week government-wide spending measure.
The bill contains $165bn of additional defence spending and $131bn in domestic spending, including funding for healthcare, infrastructure and tackling the United States opioid crisis, reports Reuters news agency. But overall, the odds of the government staying open looked good.
The bill also provides $90 billion for disaster relief following the extreme hurricanes and wildfires this past year. Senate Republican Conference Chairman John Thune told reporters ahead of the vote.
But the libertarian said "I object" when Senate leaders tried speeding a vote on the measure.
At about 1:30 a.m. - an hour and a half after the government ran out of money - the Senate easily approved the legislative package 78-21 that its two party leaders had negotiated for a bipartisan breakthrough.
Friday's shutdown lasted just a few hours, while an earlier partial government shutdown in January was resolved after a three-day standoff, Efe reported.
The measure does not include anything about the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration program, which protects from deportation numerous almost 800,000 immigrants brought to the United States illegally by their parents as children.
"We have a moral responsibility to protect Dreamers, who are the pride of our nation and are American in every way but on paper", she said.
The first was a result of Senate Democrats' strategy on immigration. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, who staged her own, eight-hour talk-a-thon against the bill on Wednesday to draw attention to the plight of DACA recipients, said she would oppose the deal unless Ryan committed to vote on legislation in the House addressing their plight.
On Thursday afternoon, House Speaker Paul Ryan (R-Wis.) insisted that he will bring up DACA legislation in the near future.
"My commitment to working together on an immigration [measure] we can make law is a honest commitment", Ryan said on the floor before the vote.